Little Group Publications

Little Group Publications

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Recent Publications

• Lan, L.; Jiang, Y.; Little, R.D.; Zeng, C. Electrochemical Synthesis of Aryl-Substituted Benzothiophenes and Phenanthrenes using Benzenediazonium Salts as the Aryl Radical Precursors. Journal of Electrochemistry, doi: 10.13208/j.electrochem.2313002.

• Francke, R. and Little, R.D. Electrochemical Catalysis of Redox-neutral Organic Reactions, Current Opinion in Electrochemistry, 2023

• Little, R.Daniel, A Challenge, J. Mex. Chem. Soc. 2023, 67(4), 495-504, Special Issue (Tribute to the electrochemical emeritus researchers of SNI), Sociedad Química de México, ISSN-e 2594-0317.  DOI:

• Patrick Enders, Michal Májek, Chiu Marco Lam, R. Daniel Little, and Robert Francke, How to Harness Electrochemical Mediators for Photocatalysis – A Systematic Approach Using the Phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazole Framework as a Test Case, ChemCatChem 2022, e202200830,

• Jee, D. W.; Myung, J.; Little, R. D.; Han, S.; Lee, H-Y. Alkylidene Carbene from Silyl Vinyl Iodide Provides Mechanistic Insights on Trimethylenemethane Diyl-Mediated Tandem Cyclizations, Org. Lett. 2022, 24, 4399–4403,

• McKenzie, E.C.R; Hosseini, S.; Couto, A.G.; Rudman, K.K.; Gerroll, B.H.R.; Mubarak, M.S.; Baker, L.A.; Little, R. D.Versatile Tools for Understanding Electrosynthetic Mechanisms, Chem. Rev. 2022, 122(3), 3292-3335. DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrev.1c00471 

• Francke, R.; Prudlik, A.; Little, R. D., In Science of Synthesis: Electrochemistry in Organic Synthesis, Ackermann, L., Ed.; Thieme: Stuttgart, (2021); Vol. 1, p 293-324 (DOI: 10.1055/sos-SD-236-00029) Science of Synthesis: Electrochemistry in Organic Synthesis, (2021) 1, 293.

• Little, R.D. JOC Perspective entitled: “A Perspective on Organic Electrochemistry, J. Org. Chem. 2020, Publication Date: August 28, 2020

• Jiang, Yang-ye; Dou, Gui-yuan; Zhang, Luo-sha; Xu, K.; Little, R. D.; Zeng, Cheng-chu, Electrochemical cross-coupling of C(sp2)-H with aryldiazonium salts via a paired electrolysis: an alternative to visible light photoredox-based approach, Adv. Synth. Cat. 2019, 361, DOI: 10.1002/adsc.201901011

• Francke, R.; Little, R. D. “Organic Electrosynthesis”, ChemElectroChem, 2019, 6 (17), front cover (DOI: 10.1002/celc.201900432)

• Francke, R.; Little, R.D.; Shinsuke I., co-editors, ChemElectroChem 2019, 6, 4065– 4066 editorial commentary [DOI: 10.1002/celc.201901175]

• Francke, R.; Little, R. D. Electrons and Holes as Catalysts in Organic Electrosynthesis, ChemElectroChem, 2019, 6, 4373-4382 []

Francke, R.; Gonzalez, L. A.; Little, R. D.; Moeller, K. D. Electrons, Electrodes, and the Transformation of Organic Molecules, Volume 10 of Surface and Interface Science, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Berlin, 2019

• Little, R. D.; Moeller, K. D. Introduction: Electrochemistry: Technology, Synthesis, Energy, and Materials Chem. Rev. 2018, 118, 4483-4484 (editorial commentary)

• “Electrochemistry: Technology, Synthesis, Energy, and Materials” Co-editor with K. D. Moeller of special issue of Chemical Reviews, Chem. Rev. 2018, 118 (9), 4483-4886

• Johnson, B. M.; Francke, R.; Little, R.D.; Berben, L. A.  High turnover in electro-oxidation of alcohols and ethers with a glassy carbon-supported phenanthroimidazole mediator, Chem. Sci. 2017, 8, 6493-6498 (DOI: 10.1039/C7SC02482G)

• Jiang, Y.-y.; Liang, S.; Hu, L-M.; Little, R. D.; Zeng, C-C. Electrochemical oxidative amination of sodium sulfinates: synthesis of sulfonamides mediated by NH4I as a redox catalyst, J. Org. Chem. 2016, DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.6b00615

  • Kang, L-S.; Luo, M-H.; Lam, C.M.; Hu, L.; Little, R. Daniel; Zeng, C-C. Electrochemical C-H functionalization and subsequent C-S and C-N bond formation: Paired electrosynthesis of 3-amino-2-thiocyanato-a,ß-unsaturated carbonyl derivatives mediated by bromide ion, Green Chemistry, 2016, DOI: 10.1039/C6GC00666C
  • Springer, S. D.; He, J.; Chui, M.; Little, R. D.; Foston, M.; Butler, A. Peroxidative Oxidation of Lignin and a Lignin Model Compound by a Manganese SALEN Derivative, ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 2016, DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b00245
  • Herold, S.; Waldvogel, S. R.; Little, R. D.; Yoo, S. J. Applicability of a Polymerized Ionic Liquid /Carbon Nanoparticle Composite Electrolyte to Reductive Cyclization and Dimerization Reactions, Electrochimica Acta, 2016, 196, 735-740
  • Zhang, K.-Y.; Lu, N.; Yoo, S.J.; Hu, L.-M.; Little, R.D.; Zeng, C.-C. Electrochemical analysis of the triarylimidazole-type organic redox catalysts: reversibility and homogeneous electron transfer kinetics for the oxidation of 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol, Electrochimica Acta, 2016, DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2016.02.132
  • Kang, L.-S.; Xiao, H.-L.; Zeng, C.-C.; Hu, L. M.; Little, R. D. Electrochemical Synthesis of Benzoxazoles Mediated by 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-hydroquinone (DDH) as a Redox Catalyst, J. Electroanal. Chem. 2016, DOI: 10.1016/j.jelechem.2015.12.051
  • Liang, S.; Zeng, C-C.; Luo, X-G.; Ren, F-Z.; Tian, H-Y.; Sun, B-G.; Little, R.D. Electrochemically catalyzed amino-oxygenation of alkenes?a n-Bu4NI induced C-N followed by C-O bond formation cascade for the synthesis of indolines, Green Chemistry, 2016, 18, 2222-2230.  DOI: 10.1039/C5GC02626A
  • Li, L.; Jiang, Y.; Zeng, C-C; Hu, L-M.; Tian, H-Y.; Lam, C. M.; Little, R. D.  Aromatic C-H bond functionalization induced by electrochemically in situ generated tris(p-bromophenyl)aminium (TBPA) radical cation: cationic chain reactions of electron-rich aromatics with enamides, J. Org. Chem. 2015, 80(21), 11021-11030; DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.5b02222
  • Chen, J.; Yan, W-Q.; Lam, M.; Zeng, C-C.; Hu, L-M.; Tian, H-Y.; Little, R.D. Electrocatalytic Aziridination of Alkenes Mediated by n-Bu4NI: A Radical Pathway Org. Lett. 2015,
  • Yoo, S. J.; Li, Long-Ji; Zeng, C-C.; Little, R. D. Polymeric Ionic Liquid and Carbon Black Composite as a Reusable Supporting Electrolyte: Modification of the Electrode Surface, Angewandte Chemie, Int. Ed. 2015, in the International Edition and in the German Edition.
  • R. K. Gbur, R. D. Little, Electrosynthesis of Bioactive Materials, in Organic Electrochemistry (5th edition), B. Speiser, O. Hammerich (Eds.), 2015, Taylor & Francis.
  • J. H. P. Utley, R. D. Little, M. F. Nielsen, Reductive Coupling, in Organic Electrochemistry (5th edition), B. Speiser, O. Hammerich (Eds.), 2015, Taylor & Francis.
  • Lu, N-N.; Zhang, N-T.; Zeng, C-C.; Hu, L-M.; Yoo, S.J.; Little, R. D. Electrochemically induced ring-opening/Friedel-Crafts arylation of chalcone epoxides catalyzed by a triarylimidazole redox mediator, J. Org. Chem. 2014, 79,
  • Gao, W-J.; Li, W-C.; Zeng, C-C.; Tian, H-Y.; Hu, L-M.; Little, R. D. Efficient Electrochemical Oxidative Aminations of Benzoxazoles using Alkylammonium Halides as Redox Catalysts J. Org. Chem. 2014, 79 (20), 9613–9618,
  • N. Lu, S. Joon Yoo, Long-Jie Li, C.C. Zeng, R. D. Little, A comparative study of organic electron transfer redox mediators: electron transfer kinetics for triarylimidazole and triarylamine mediators in the oxidation of 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol Electrochim. Acta, 2014, 142, 254-260
  • Xiao, H-L.; Zeng, C-C.; Tian, H-Y.; Hu, L-M.; Little, R.D, Electrochemical synthesis of 3,5-disubstituted isoxazoles, J. Electroanal. Chem. 2014, 727, 120-124
  • R. Francke, R. D. Little, Redox Catalysis in Organic Electrosynthesis: Basic Principles and Recent Developments, Chem. Soc. Rev. 2014, 43, 2492–2521 (front cover). [DOI: 10.1039/C3CS60464K]
  • R. Francke, R. D. Little, Optimizing Electron Transfer Mediators Based on Arylimidazoles by Ring Fusion: Synthesis, Electrochemistry and Computational Analysis of 2-Aryl-1-methyl-phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazoles, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2014, 136, 427–435.[DOI: 10.1021/ja410865z]
  • C. Li, C.-C. Zeng, L.-M. Hu, F.-L. Yang, R. D. Little, Electrochemically induced C-H functionalization using bromide ion/TEMPO dual redox catalysts in a two-phase electrolyte system, Electrochim. Acta 2013, 114, 560-566. [DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2013.10.093]
  • W.-C. Li, .; C.-C. Zeng, L.-M. Hu, H.-Y. Tian, R. D. Little, Efficient indirect electrochemical synthesis of 2-substituted benzoxazoles using NaI as a mediator Adv. Synth. Catal. 2013, 355, 2884–2890. [DOI: 10.1002/adsc.201300502]
  • D. R. Day, S. Jabaiah, R. S. Jacobs, R. D. Little, Cyclodextrin Formulation of the Marine Natural Product Pseudopterosin A Uncovers Optimal Pharmacodynamics in Proliferation Studies of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells, Mar. Drugs, 2013, 11, 3258-3271. [DOI: 10.3390/md11093258]
  • N.-T. Zhang, C.-C. Zeng, C. M. Lam, R. K. Gbur, R. D. Little, Triarylimidazole Redox Catalysts: Electrochemical Analysis and Empirical Correlations, J. Org. Chem. 2013, 78, 2104–2110. [DOI: 10.1021/jo302309m ]
  • H.-L. Xiao, C.-W. Yang, N.-T. Zhang, C.-C. Zeng, L.-M. Hu, H.-Y. Tian, R. D. Little, Electrochemical oxidation of aminophenols in the presence of benzenesulfinate, Tetrahedron 2012, 69, 658-663. [DOI: 10.1016/j.tet.2012.11.005 ]
  • R. D. Little, Anodic Substitutions, in Encyclopedia of Applied Electrochemistry, R. F. Savinell, K.-I. Ota and G. Kreysa, (Eds), 2012, Springer, New York.
  • C.-C. Zeng, N.-T. Zhang, C. M. Lam, R. D. Little, Novel triarylimidazole redox catalysts: synthesis, electrochemical properties and applicability to electrooxidative C-H activation, Org. Lett., 2012, 14, 1314-1317. [DOI: 10.1021/ol300195c ]
  • R. Gbur, ; R. D. Little, Unveiling the Role of Molecule-Assisted Homolysis: A Mechanistic Probe into the Chemistry of a Bicyclic Peroxide, J. Org. Chem. 2012, 77, 2134-2141. [DOI: 10.1021/jo300297u ]